Electron spins talk to each other via a ‘quantum mediator’
The unparalleled possibilities of quantum computers are currently still limited because information exchange between the bits in such computers is difficult, especially over larger distances. FOM workgroup leader Lieven Vandersypen and his colleagues within the QuTech research centre and the Kavli Institute for Nanosciences (Delft University of Technology) have succeeded for the first time in enabling two non-neighbouring quantum bits in the form of electron spins in semiconductors to communicate with each other. They publish their research on 10 October in Nature Nanotechnology.
Information exchange is something that we scarcely think about these days. People constantly communicate via e-mails, mobile messaging applications and phone calls. Technically, it is the bits in those various devices that talk to each other. “For a normal computer, this poses absolutely no problem,” says professor Lieven Vandersypen. “However, for the quantum computer – which is potentially much faster than the current computers – that information exchange between quantum bits is very complex, especially over long distances.”
Electrons talk with each other Within Vandersypen’s research group, PhD student Tim Baart and postdoc Takafumi Fujita worked on the communication between quantum bits. Each bit consists of a single electron with a spin direction (spin up = ‘0’ and spin down = ‘1’). “From previous research, we knew that two neighbouring electron spins can interact with each other, but that this interaction sharply decreases with increasing distance between them,” says Baart. “ We have now managed to make two non-neighbouring electrons communicate with each other for the first time. To achieve this, we used a quantum mediator: an object that can exchange the information between the two spins over a larger distance.”